Day: May 27, 2019

Things To Know About Clinical Research Consulting Madison, Wisconsin

Research and technologies

The birth of the new technologies marks the peak of drug discovery. In our modern society, with rapidly growing technology, we are now able to push research to a level never seen in the past centuries. Hence, biotechnology has given us more tools to understand the insights of the human body and its mechanisms. Everyday, new discoveries bring us closer to a longer and healthier life by giving us the aid to fight diseases, but also to prevent them.We get more info on Clinical Research Consulting Madison, Wisconsin.

In the old days, discovery of drugs often happened by fluke. A good example is the extraordinary discovery of the penicillin by Alexandre Fleming in 1928. A spore from a rare plant (Penicillium) from a mycology lab one floor below drifted in his lab, on a bacterial culture dish, leading to one of the greatest drug discoveries. Nonetheless, if we always had to wait for that type of fortune to happen, discoveries would be extremely rare. Nowadays, new successful drug discoveries depend less on luck and more on the combination of modern benchwork and great science. This is made possible by our more in-depth understanding of the human body and biology combined with more sophisticated tools. In spite of the skyrocketing number of drug discoveries, steps between drug discoveries and their marketing on our drugstore shelves are numerous and often laborious.

Clinical Trials

Clinical trials study the impact of a drug that is intended to be use in humans on human subjects. Clinical trials, are part of an important process allowing the collection of data about safety and efficacy before new drugs (including new devices) can be marketed. They are also intended to detect or verify the clinical, pharmacological or pharmacodynamic effect of the drug, identify any adverse event relative to the drug and allow to research other important elements in the comprehension of the drug, such as its distribution and excretion. Clinical trials can only take place after adequate information have been collected on the product: thorough and promising non-clinical research findings have had to be made first. Consequently, Health Authorities has to approve of them, in the granted country, before any studies on human subjects can start to take place.


Clinical trials are strictly regulated in every country and follow what are called Good Clinical Practices (GCP), provided by the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH). GCPs are intended to define a standard in clinical trials across the world and are especially important in the fact that their guidelines include the protection of human rights as a subject in clinical trial, therefore allowing any volunteer that passes the inclusion criteria to join a trial and more importantly, to remove their consent at any given time. They also ensure proper habits and safe practices among the professionals of the industry. Hence, clinical trials are subjected to international regulations, to regulations specific to each country in which the investigation is conducted, but can also be subjected to regulations specific to a state/province and even to the institution where the study is taking place (ex: hospital). Clinical trials follow very strict protocols, designed by experts in the domain, and all study investigators must adhere and comply to the given protocol. Any deviations needs to be recorded and authorized by the sponsors.

There are 4 possible phases in clinical trials, which indicate the stage of the product development and each phase can include very distinct elements. Depending on the type of products as well as the stage of the product development, healthy volunteers(controls) or patients can be enrolled. The number of enrolled patients can be increased if and as more positive safety data are collected. The overall number of enrolled volunteers and patients varies for each clinical trial which size also also varies. A trial can be as small as one center in one country or as large as a multicentres trial in multiple countries. The number of steps between drug discovery and its approval by Health authority for its marketing are fastidious and lengthy. However each step is essential and ensure both efficacy and safety of any new drug. Thus, it is through these trials that investigational drugs, devices and diagnostics may show their benefits.

Categories: Business

Bed Bug Infestations Reach Record Levels


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One of the most feared and misunderstood pests known to man is the bed bug (Cimex lectularius). How many of us have dozed off to sleep at night as children with the words of our parents in our ears ‘sleep tight and don’t let the bed bugs bite’?

Bed bugs probably started to feed on man at about the time we moved into caves, the ‘bat bugs’ Cimex pilosellus and Cimex pipistrella primarily feed on bats and it is probable that bat feeding species of bug evolved to dine on human blood when our ancesters started dwelling in bat infested caves.¬†You may want to check out for more.

Until the advent of DDT in the early 20th century bed bugs were common non-paying guests in most poor quality housing. The later part of the 20th century saw pest control companies dealing with very few bed bug infestations indeed, their presence being largely confined to cheap holiday camps and student accommodation etc.

Many people confuse dust mites, which are not visible to the naked eye, with bed bugs which certainly are. Adult bedbugs are reddish-brown, about a quarter of an inch in size and decidedly swollen after a feed of human blood.

They have an incomplete metamorphosis which means that the young are just smaller versions of the adult, they do not have a pupal stage like a flea or a fly. They typically feed on human blood every 7 – 10 days, coming out in the hours before dawn and sensing their prey by detecting the exhaled CO2 from respiration and when nearing in on their target, body heat.

In the absence of a convenient human to feed on they can lay dormant for periods of up to 18 months. Signs of a bed bug infestation are spots of blood on bedding and on the underside of mattresses and some people can react badly to their bites.The early 21st century has seen bed bug numbers explode across the globe, the cheap availability of global travel and economic migration have both been blamed for the resurgence. What is certain is that that are now making a major comeback not only in poor quality housing but high class hotels, schools and even hospitals. One London borough reported a doubling of bed bug infestations every single year from 1995 – 2001.

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A single night away in an infested hotel is all it takes, they hitch a ride in your suitcases or bags. Pest control companies are also now reporting instances of transport related bug infestations on tubes, trains and buses so a simple journey to work on an infested tube or train can be enough to spread the infestation to your home.They are an expensive pest to eradicate as contrary to popular opinion they do not just live in beds. They infest any nook and cranny conveniently close to a sleeping human, beds, electrical sockets, televisions, bed-side telephones etc and eradication is both difficult and time consuming. They have even been found living under the toe-nails of infirm people and in the creases of flesh on grossly over-weight people.